Since there are different types of migraines, doctors find it hard to diagnose and treat. Which is why to make it easier for them to give an accurate diagnosis of the said medical condition; they categorized it into 2 types of migraines: migraines without aura and migraine with aura. Aura would refer to the visual sensations that a person would experience five to thirty minutes prior the migraine attack. This aura is characterized by the zigzagged lines, flashing lights, tunnel vision, and a temporary blind spot that the migraine sufferer will experience. Sometimes too, it disables or weakens the ability of the sufferer to speak, smell, and move.
1 out of 5 people who experience migraine will usually experience this aural symptom, while most of the patients will have migraines without aura. Under these 2 main categories are some more several sub types of migraines. To give you additional information about these types of migraine headaches, here is an overview about them and the symptoms associated with them.
Basilar migraines: A rare form of migraine that happens suddenly; this condition usually affects the sufferer with feelings of dizziness, confusion, weakness in the limbs, and lack of balance. It also results in the person to have visual hallucinations, loss of ability to speak properly, nausea and vomiting, and ringing in the ears. This type of migraine usually happens to young women due to hormonal changes they experience during menstrual migraine.
Abdominal migraines: This is one of the types of migraines that doctors find hard to diagnose since the pain occurs in the abdomen, usually in the middle part. It is usually associated with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The attack can last for hours and is more commonly experienced by children.
Ophthalmoplegic migraines: The pain felt during this migraine attack happens in the eyeball and can last from a few days to months. It is caused by an excessive pressure on the nerves on the eye’s back area and can be accompanied with paralysis in the area surrounding the eye. It is one of the most severe and rare migraines requiring medical attention.
Ocular migraines: One of the most common types of migraines, ocular migraine can either preceded, accompanied, or followed with a headache; usually on the same side where the sufferer will experience visual disturbances like blurred vision, or sometimes even, temporary blindness. It can last for a few minutes to several hours. When you experience one, seek medical attention since it can lead to permanent blindness.
These are just four of the many types of migraines. To know about the other types, you can refer to online journals or medical websites that tackle them. These online websites also usually have corresponding treatment options and suggestions that can be applied for the many types of migraines.
For many years now, neurologists would actually relate the occurrence of migraine to the vasodilatation of the nerve cells that surround the brain, which then causes the inflammation and pain of the head. These vasodilatation or enlargement of the nerve cells then triggers the release of chemicals which then causes changes the circulation of the blood in the brain. However, recent studies have shown a different set of migraine causes. Researchers now propagate the theory that the chemical changes do not really occur and affect the blood vessels, but that the brain is the one being affected by these chemical changes. Other than that, studies have also shown that migraine can be a hereditary condition and can happen to almost anybody especially when there are triggers that increase the possibility of a person to have a migraine attack.
Migraine triggers are those environmental or physiological elements which causes excessive pressure in the brain. The person might be very sensitive to these elements, which then makes him/her prone to having migraine attacks. Some of the most common migraine causes would include, stress, sleeping difficulties, lack of food, bright or flashing lights, strong odors, smoke from cigarettes, alcohol, chocolate, caffeine, extreme temperatures, excessive exposure to sunlight, food chemicals, among all else. It has also been shown that women are more prone to having migraine, and researchers now say that this is because of hormonal changes that happen in their bodies, usually around the time they have their menstruation. The so-called menstrual migraine usually occurs two days prior their period or for some, a day after it. Theories have shown the correlation between changes in the estrogen level and migraine headaches. Migraine causes vary for each individual depending on the triggers that preempt these attacks. Migraine headache causes extreme fatigue and pain to anyone experiencing it, thus it is important to take note of the triggers in order to avoid them, thus reducing further migraine attacks.
Other types of migraine like ocular migraine, also has different symptoms and triggers. Usually, ocular migraine causes a person to have visual sensations that are strange. Usually a headache does not occur during an ocular migraine attack, but it can leave the sufferer feeling very fatigued and stressed out. It can be triggered by visual difficulties, lack of sleep, excessive stress and tension, and more. Migraine causes really differ depending on the person’s systemic reaction to certain elements. Because of its varied nature, there are also a wide array of migraine causes and treatment recommended for it. To know more about these treatments, online journals and medical websites can be very good references.
Migraine is caused by the enlargement of blood vessels, which then triggers the release of chemicals from the nerve fibers of the large arteries that surround the brain. These chemicals then cause the inflammation and aggravate the vasodilatation of the artery, which results in the increase of pain. This release of chemicals is usually connected with severe stress and tension which affects the supplication of blood to the brain. Migraine is a really bothersome and painful condition that needs to be recognized before it can even get worse. To know whether you are about to experience one, here are some migraine headache symptoms that usually accompany it.
Symptoms and causes of migraine headaches differ and vary for each individual. Thus, there are no fixed lists of associated signs of a migraine headache. However, most of the attacks are usually pre-indicated by the aura, or visual disturbance, that a person will experience before the excruciating headache happens. This aura is characterized by the zigzagged lines and flashing, brightly-colored lights in one’s sight, blurred vision, eye pain, or temporary blindness in one spot (scotoma). This aura is usually experienced 24 hours or even just a few minutes prior the attack. Elderly patients can suffer this symptom sans the headache. Some other migraine headache symptoms would also include pain on one side of the head. This pain is usually moderate to severe and which is usually pulsating or throbbing. The pain is also felt near the temples, neck, behind the head, and at the back of the eyes. This pain can last for a few hours, with the pain increasing as time passes. Severe cases can even last for the entire day or more. Usually, too, the patient will also be more sensitive to light and sound; thus, they usually just stay inside a room to get themselves away from these distractions. Patients experiencing it would also report on having migraine headache symptoms like, numbness, frequent urination, weakness, excessive sweating, loss of concentration and appetite, dullness of the mind, sleepiness, depression, yawning, and neck pain. Other than that, symptoms of migraine headache would also include nausea, vomiting, chilling, and extreme fatigue. These symptoms are usually offshoots of the pain brought about by the migraine.
Because of the recurring nature of migraine, most patients can already see a pattern on signs of a migraine headache and are already forewarned about an incoming migraine attack. Because of this, doctors and specialists usually suggest a patient to keep a headache diary that will track these headaches and the associated migraine headache symptoms that go with it, so that prescribing medications for the patient is easier.
Migraine cures have been around for ages. Hundreds of years ago, people utilized tripanning to cure migraines, which is done by opening your skull to allow the pain to come out. The Egyptians make use of herbs and natural migraine cures to stop headache while during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a common treatment for migraine involves using a cloth scented with lavender that is placed on top of the eyes. At present, a guaranteed cure for the malady has not yet been found and various medications and treatments that are supposed to cure migraine for good are being offered all over the internet. Unfortunately, many of these supposed “cures” are nothing but scams.
If you were afflicted by migraine, you would know about the excruciating headache and other debilitating symptoms such as vomiting and nausea, which prompted some to call it “sick headaches”. The unbearable headache can sometimes go on for three days, which can only be relieved slightly by over the counter medicines. Hence, people afflicted by the disorder are constantly on the lookout for migraine cures.
As a sufferer, you would know that an attack is usually preceded by warning symptoms such as blurred vision or black spots before your eyes. The headache is usually felt on one side only and typically centered on one eye. Many sufferers would just go to bed and try to sleep the pain off. When the headache finally goes away in a day or two, the sufferer would often feel shaken and weak but once the feeling goes back to normal, the person would be fine – that is, until the next attack occurs.
Various migraine cures can be tried to reduce or take away the headache associated with the condition, but knowing what is triggering your attacks is also important. At present, there is still no concrete evidence as to its exact cause but migraine is thought to be triggered by a chemical in our body called serotonin. Low levels of this chemical causes blood vessel changes in the brain. However, what causes a change in the serotonin level is still unknown.
The common triggers for migraine include change in the sleeping pattern, stress, tension in the neck and shoulders or poor posture, certain drinks and foods such as, caffeine or chocolate, flickering or very bright light, loud noises, strenuous exercise, not taking enough fluid, skipping meals and certain odors.
Migraine cures are prescribed for both men and women although there are migraine cures for women that are advertised because they are three times more like to have migraines than men do. In addition, women are vulnerable to migraines during pregnancy, when they are having their periods or at menopause. You may find migraine cures for men as well but if over the counter painkillers are no longer working, matter if it is for men or women, you will have to try other medications such as triptans or 5HT agonists. Triptans impede the effect of serotonin, which is considered as a cause for migraines. These migraine cures are available in tablets, injections, nasal sprays or soluble wafers.
Every time you visit a hospital or a health center, you will find health workers in their medical apparel. Apart from showing professionalism, these clothes also act as identification to the people who visit the health center. Although medical apparel may be used as a general term, it is important to know that these uniforms come in various types.
Types of Medical Apparel
Here are the types of medical apparel.
- Lab Coats – Lab coats are usually worn by laboratory staffs. These coats are specifically made to meet the needs of laboratories and to protect the wearer from any contaminants.
- Scrubs – Scrubs are mostly worn by nurses while disseminating their services. As you know nurses do a lot of work in the hospital. As a matter of fact, the services of the nurses cannot be ignored if a hospital has to run smoothly. You will find nurses preparing samples for the doctors, giving patients medicines and even preparing equipment in readiness for operation. Because of their expansive duties, they may be subjected to a lot of danger and that is where medical scrubs come to their rescue. Nowadays, there are various types of scrubs as the professionals seek comfort. For instance, holiday scrubs can be worn in the hospital and perform duties well but at an improved image. In addition, doctors also wear these scrubs if they have patients to operate.
- Doctors’ coats – These coats are worn by doctors while performing medical duties. When these are worn, they help patients in identifying their doctors. As other types of medical uniforms, doctors’ coats help in protecting the doctor from any contaminants. They also help in improving hygienic standards thus ensuring that the medication exercise is not compromised.
Features and Advantages of Medical Apparel
Most medical apparel is white although this may depend on the type. For instance holiday scrubs are not necessarily white because they are worn to perform the same function but bring a difference when it comes to designs and prints. The following are the advantages of medical apparel.
- One of the greatest advantages of medical apparel is improvement of hygiene. Medical practice is a very sensitive exercise that should be handled with care. During the exercise, there are many germs that can easily get their way through to the patient. For instance, wounded patients are vulnerable to transfer of germs which may exacerbate the disease. Medical apparel prevents this from happening.
- Another advantage of medical apparel is protection of the medical staffs. These people are exposed to many patients who suffer from different diseases which can easily get their way to the bodies of health workers. Such apparel play a major role in protecting medical staffs from contracting diseases most especially those that are highly contagious.
- Identification is also another advantage of medical apparel. Whenever you go to the hospital, your eyes will always give you a glimpse of the specific roles of the different health care professionals you see.
Medical apparel is considered an image that cannot fade away from hospitals. This is because of the benefits they have towards the profession at large.
Operating Room safety basically involves safeguarding the well-being of both patients and health care professionals while in the Operating Room (OR). There’re quite a number of health hazards in the OR that need to be addressed to ensure the safety of both patients and Health care providers. This is very essential especially in trying to avoid costly litigation procedures. Well, to elaborately design safety measures in the OR, you need to identify first the possible health hazards.
Health Hazards Inside The Operating Room (OR)
The following are some of the health hazards that may compromise with Operating Room safety:
- Slip, Trip Or Fall Hazards: Sometimes, the floor of an operating room can be too slippery hence highly vulnerable to slips or falls. These may cause injuries.
- Exposure To Health Risk Gases: Inhalation of anesthetic gases may pose several health risks such as tiredness, mental retardation as well as loss of reflex actions.
- Exposure To Laser Radiations: Exposure to laser radiations may cause diseases like cancer which is a health hazard.
- Electrical Shock Risks: Faulty electrical appliances may cause electrical shocks hence hampering Operating Room safety.
- Fire Hazards: If not contained, a fire outbreak can be a greater health hazard. It can actually result to injuries such as burns.
- Exposure To Dangerous Chemical Cleaning Agents: Most cleaning agents are hazardous especially before use.
- Contact With Particulate Releases: Some processes in the OR, such as using laser, create particulates into the air. Some of them may have spores of fungus which may pose greater health risks.
- Body Fluid Exposures Especially From Sharp Objects: Research has shown that almost 50% of all sharp object injuries arise during or after use, for example when: inserting a peripheral Intravenous line, collecting and sampling blood, cutting tissue using either the Iris scissors or scalpel, moving back the needle from a patient or when disposing waste.
- Knocking Heads On Operating Room Lights: OR lights may cause head injuries if not well adjusted after an operation.
Safety Measures To Curb Health Hazards
To guarantee Operating Room safety to patients and health care providers, appropriate measures need to be taken to avert any health care hazards. The following measures can be undertaken to reduce these health hazards:
- Dispose sharp objects like Iris scissors immediately after use into the nearest sharps container.
- Use personal protective Equipment (PPE) when performing all surgical operations such as gloves, head masks, goggles among others.
- Always take great care and precaution when emptying gas canisters or cylinders.
- When operating in a laser room, always make sure that the room has been medically tested.
- Regularly check endotracheal tubes and other connections to prevent aesthetic gas leaks. This measure will help promote Operating Room safety especially for physicians.
- Make sure the scrubber is fully loaded to sustain an operation.
- Strictly follow prescribed instructions from the manufacturer on how to prepare and use cleaning detergents.
- Wear shoes which are resistant to slip to reduce the risk of slipping or tripping on the floor.
- Always put on eye-laser protective devices when working in ORs with laser radiations.
- Appropriately adjust OR lights after use to avoid head injuries.
- Make sure all medical electrical equipments in the OR are in good working condition before starting an operation.
- Never use any equipment without the ground plug.
- All staff should be properly trained on fire management procedures such as use of fire extinguishers.
- All the medical team should be aware of the location of the fire alarm systems.
If the above measures are properly taken and implemented, Operating Room safety might be guaranteed to patients as well as health care workers.