Skin Discoloration – Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Skin Discoloration – Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

woman with skin Discoloration

Put simply, skin discoloration is discolored patches of skin. They are associated with a lot of different causes and can come in many different types and forms. Discolored skin patches are seen as irregular and come from roots causes such as illness, inflammation, acne scars, and injury.

Skin discoloration can cause things such as lower self-esteem, lower self-confidence, and increase feelings of worry. It can cause feelings of embarrassment and shame and it can also be difficult to find the root issue causing the skin discoloration.

Let’s Learn About Melanin and Your Skin

shoulder with skin pigmentation

Melanin is what gives our skin color, simply put. It protects our precious skin cells from the sun and gives people their unique skin color. It also gives pigment to the human hair and eyes.

People with higher amounts of melanin have darker skin. Melanocytes are the cells that produce melanin. When your skin is exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce more melanin to protect your skin against harmful UV rays.

Did you know that concentrated spots of increased melanin cause freckles? When skin discoloration occurs, sometimes it is because there is an increase in melanin production.

The Many Causes of Skin Discoloration

Skin discoloration can be caused by a multitude of different reasons, ranging from sunburn to rosacea to contact dermatitis to eczema. It can be an either very easy or very hard to diagnosis skin discoloration and its root cause.

Where are here to break down the types of skin discoloration and what they look and feel like. We will also try to give practical and medically sound advice for treating skin discoloration, but make sure to head to your dermatologist or primary care physician if you think you have any of these ailments.

 


Woman with Sunborn

Causes:

Sunburn might seem like an obvious thing to recognize and know, but it is definitely considered a skin discoloration. Sunburn is caused by over exposure to the sun without the use of skin protectant.

Symptoms:

A sunburn is associated with redness, pain, and swelling – as well as dry and peeling skin. It is usually located on the outermost layer of skin unless it is a second or third degree burn, which is somewhat hard to encounter – but if you do – you should be seen by a doctor.

More severe burns that can happen from over exposed sunlight can cause blisters and huge welting burns and may need to be treated in the emergency room. Using natural sunscreens and UV protected clothing can greatly decrease the risk of sunburn.

Treatments:

Cooling down the affected area is the number one remedy for sunburn. Using aloe vera gel or directly applying the gel of an aloe vera plant can work wonders on sunburn. Avoid using ice, but getting in a cool bath or shower is a great remedy for helping ease the pain of sunburn.

 


Mixed candida species

Causes:

Candida causes infection in the skin by hosting small amounts of the strain of fungus candida. It becomes a problem when it creates an overgrowth of these fungi and it is not treated. Types of candida include nail fungus, vaginal yeast infection, jock itch, diaper rash, oral thrush, and athlete’s foot.

Candida thrives in warm, humid, and moist environments. If you have cuts and abrasions, the candida is even more likely to multiply and overgrow. Poor hygiene and tight clothing can also lead to candida.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of candida include itching, burning red rashes with a wet appearance, dry crusting edges, and a stinging sensation. Over time, candida can develop into cracked and sore skin with blisters or pus filled bubbles. Usually candida is found in places such as your armpits, behind the knees, under breasts, or between your fingers and toes.

Treatments:

Candida is easy to treat if it is caught at an early stage and taken care of immediately. It can lead to potentially life threatening illnesses if it is left untreated or if the person infected has a weak immune system.

Because candida is a fungus, anti-fungal creams work best but it is completely dependent on where the candida is located. Candida can sometimes be treated with over the counter topical creams such as ketoconazole or clotrimazole.



CONTACT DERMATITIS

Causes:

Contact dermatitis is a basic allergic reaction of your skin. There are three types of contact dermatitis, including allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and photo-contact dermatitis.

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin is exposed to a foreign substance that it is allergic to and causes the body to give out inflammatory chemicals that cause many irritating symptoms.

Common cause of contact dermatitis include latex gloves, perfumes, chemicals in cleaning products or cosmetics, poison ivy and poison oak, and jewelry made of nickel - just to name a few.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of contact dermatitis are red and itching rashes on the skin, dry and flaky skin, oozing blisters, swelling, extreme itching, swelling in the face, eyes or groin areas, burning, stinging, ulcerations, and open sores to name the most common.

Treatments:

Treatments for contact dermatitis are unfortunately just using different forms of pain relief as you wait for the contact dermatitis to subside on its own. Treatment starts by stopping contact with whatever you think might have caused the allergic reaction.

Apply bland petroleum jelly (Vaseline) to soothe the area and try the anti-itch goodness of calamine lotion or its brother hydrocortisone cream. Clean your skin with fragrance-free soap and semi-warm water - and try as hard as you cannot to scratch the irritated skin. If you are absolutely miserable, take a Benadryl to subside the itching.

 


eczema

Causes:

The cause of eczema is not totally understood but the root of the skin irritant is thought to occur due to an overactive immune system reacting belligerently to the presence of irritants.

In cases of eczema, the immune system is no longer able to distinguish between proteins that are already apart of the human body and those that are considered invaders like viruses and bacteria.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of eczema include skin that is dry, flaky, itchy, irrigated and inflamed. An eczema flare up is when two or more common symptoms are present. Flare-ups occur all over the body but most commonly on the arms, inner elbows, on the face, and on the backs of knees.

Treatments:

There is no permanent treatment for eczema but there are many over the counter creams as well as prescription strength ointments and steroids that can be used to help subside eczema flare-ups.

Common over the counter medications to help treat eczema include cetirizine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, and loratadine. Steroid creams (cortisone) can relieve the effects of itching and flakiness. There are many other non-traditional treatments and alternative medicines to consider when treating eczema as well.

 


Rosacea

Causes:

More than 16 million Americans only are affected by the chronic skin disease, rosacea. Rosacea comes in four different types and the cause is completely unknown.

Rosacea has no known cause but it is likely linked to hereditary and environmental factors or a combination of the two. There are things that are known to make your rosacea outbursts worse, including consuming alcohol, the presence of cathelicidin, and eating spicy foods.

Symptoms:

Rosacea is known for its appearance as small, red bumps on the skin filled with pus. The disease usually affects skin around your face, especially cheeks, foreheads, and noses. The flare-ups happen in cycles so that you may have symptoms for weeks or months at a time, they usually subside for a while, and then they will come back later in time.

There are four different subtypes of rosacea including subtype one (erythematotelangiectatic rosacea ETR), subtype two (papulopustular), subtype three (rhinophyma) and subtype four (ocular rosacea).

Each subtype of rosacea has its own symptoms but they all rooted around redness, swollen skin, acne-like breakouts, sensitive skin, stinging, itching, burning, dryness, flakiness, and many more.

Treatments:

There is no known cure for rosacea, unfortunately, but doctors and those affected by this chronic disease have found that avoiding certain products can help. They say to avoid alcohol, menthol, witch hazel, and all exfoliating agents.

Rosacea can be a heartbreaking condition to live with but there are 16 million people in America alone that deal with this disease, so it is important to not feel alone if you are diagnosed.

If you are diagnosed, get support from a local support group or an online support group that can help you feel validated in what you are going through. It is very nice to have people in your life that support you through the ups and downs of living with rosacea – or any other chronic condition.

It’s Just Skin

Back view of woman in black

Skin discoloration and disease can be a hard thing to live with. Skin discoloration can be extremely irritating, uncomfortable, and painful. From wanting to scratch your skin off to wanting to have a solution, skin discoloration is not an easy ailment to cope with.

If you think you might have skin discoloration or a skin illness, go see a dermatologist or doctor immediately. It is imperative to catch these issues as soon as you can in order to subdue them and possibly prevent future outbreaks.


8 Ways To Improve Your Mental Acuity

8 Ways To Improve Your Mental Acuity

Have you ever heard of the term “mental acuity”? If not, it’s okay, because you’re definitely not alone! Mental acuity is essentially a fancy term for mental sharpness. Mental acuity is generally defined as the sharpness of the mind. A person’s mental acuity is memory, focus, concentration, and understanding.”

As a culture, Americans are fixated on working. We work, work, work, and then work some more. We push ourselves to new limits every day, and while that is certainly a good time, many of us forget to work on our mental health and the overall well being of our minds.

Mental acuity is often times overlooked due to the demands of everyday life, but when you dedicate time and effort to improving yourself on a mental level, the benefits are incredible.

Today, we are bringing you what we believe to be 10 great, efficient ways to improving or sharpening your mental acuity.

Continue reading to check them out:

Eat A Balanced Diet

Your brain needs fuel just like your body does! Make sure you are including lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, “healthy” fats, and lean protein in your diet. Not only will it increase the health of your body, but it will also increase the health of your mind.

Moving on, it is not just about the foods you do it, but it also about the foods that you do not eat. The following nutritional tips will help increase your memory and overall brainpower:

  • Make sure you are consuming omega-3s: Fish is a great source of omega-3s. In specific, try to eat cold water “fatty fish” such as salmon, tuna, halibut, trout, mackerel, sardines, and herring. If you do not like fish, you can get your omega 3s by eating seaweed, walnuts, ground flaxseed, flaxseed oil, winter squash, kidney beans, pinto beans, spinach, broccoli, pumpkin seeds, and soybeans.
  • Limit calories and cut out saturated fat: Do your best to cut out, or at least limit red meat, whole milk, butter, cheese, cream, and ice cream.
  • Eat more fruit and vegetables: Fruits and vegetables are packed with antioxidants, which are substances that protect your brain cells from damage. Colorful fruits and vegetables are particularly good antioxidant “superfood” sources.
  • Drink green tea: Green tea contains polyphenols, which are powerful antioxidants that protect brain cells. There are many other benefits such as enhanced memory and mental alertness. It is also believed to slow brain aging.
  • Drink in moderation. Make sure you keep your alcohol consumption in check. Alcohol has been proven to kill brain cells. But in moderation, however, alcohol may actually improve memory and cognition. Red wine, for example, is rich in resveratrol, which is a flavonoid that boosts blood flow in the brain and reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Get Your Sleep

Sure, you can get by and function on a few hours of sleep. There is a big difference, however, when you get the amount of sleep that your body needs because that is when it functions its best. The majority of Americans typically need between 7.5 to 9 hours of sleep every night. Getting a good night’s sleep can make a huge difference. It can boost your memory, creativity, problem-solving abilities, and critical thinking skills.

Sleep is even more critical to learning and memory than most people actually realize. It is necessary for memory consolidation because it provides your brain with the memory-enhancing activity that occurs during the deepest stages of sleep.

Try setting a bedtime every night, and avoiding technology an hour or so before you go to sleep every night!

Cut Out Negativity & Stop Complaining

Due to the common stresses of life that we all deal with, it is easy to complain. Many of us complain so much that we do not even realize how much we are doing it.

Complaining is a negative behavior that comes back to negatively affect us.

It’s hard to wake up every day and feel motivated. Everybody has their everyday struggles and stressors, but you cannot let this define you. Morning enthusiasm is a decision that you make, and it is crucial for succeeding and achieving your goals. We all get overwhelmed from time to time. It is up to you to flip the switch and change your approach. Be enthusiastic, don’t play the victim, believe in yourself, and take every day by the horns! Focus on the positive rather than the negative, and you will see results in no time!

Exercise

Physical exercise will help you maintain a sharp mind. It is proven to increase oxygen levels in your brain, and it reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, disorders that lead to memory loss. Not only will exercise reduce your chances of memory loss, but it also enhances the effects of helpful brain chemicals and reduces stress hormones.

Check out the following exercise tips for a sharp mind:

  • Aerobic exercise is very good for the brain. Make sure you are doing exercises that boost your heart rate and keep your blood pumping. Beneficial heart exercises are almost always good for your brain.
  • If it takes you a long time to clear get moving and thinking straight in the morning, try working out as soon as you wake up in the morning. It will help you get going in the morning and prime you for the rest of the day.
  • activites that require hand-eye coordination and complex motor skills are very beneficial for brain sharpening.
  • Take a break in the middle of the day to knock out some pushups, dips, or jumping jacks. Take a little break to help you reboot your brain.

Give Your Brain A Workout

Over the course of your life, your brain will develop millions of neural pathways that help you process and recall information quickly. They also help you solve problems and complete task with a small amount of mental effort.

If you stick to these well-worn paths, however, you are not giving your brain enough of a challenge. You should always stimulate your brain so that it keeps growing and developing. Change things up from time to time!

In order to make sure you do not lose your memory, you must put it to use! When you work your brain, you will be better at processing and remembering information.

The best brain exercises break your routine and challenge you to use and develop new brain pathways. Holly Green of Forbes.com offers the several brainteasers that help boost your mental acuity. Check them out below:

1. Johnny’s mother had three children. The first child was named April. The second child was named May. What was the third child’s name?

2. A clerk at a butcher shop stands five feet ten inches tall and wears size 13 sneakers. What does he weigh?

3. Before Mt. Everest was discovered, what was the highest mountain in the world?

4. How much dirt is there in a hole that measures two feet by three feet by four feet?

5. What word in the English language is always spelled incorrectly?

6. Billie was born on December 28th, yet her birthday always falls in the summer. How is this possible?

7. In British Columbia, you cannot take a picture of a man with a wooden leg. Why not?

8. If you were running a race and you passed the person in 2nd place, what place would you be in now?

9. Which is correct to say, “The yolk of the egg is white” or “The yolk of the egg are white?”

10. A farmer has five haystacks in one field and four haystacks in another. How many haystacks would he have if he combined them all in one field?

Did you get them right? Check out the answers below:

1. Johnny.

2. Meat.

3. Mt. Everest. It just wasn’t discovered yet.

4. There is no dirt in a hole.

5. Incorrectly (except when it is spelled incorrectly).

6. Billie lives in the southern hemisphere.

7. You can’t take a picture with a wooden leg. You need a camera (or iPad or cell phone) to take a picture.

8. You would be in 2nd place. You passed the person in second place, not first.

9. Neither. Egg yolks are yellow.

10. One. If he combines all his haystacks, they all become one big stack.

Take A Break From Social Media

Americans are addicted to technology and social media in specific. There is no getting around it. When we get up in the morning to check our phones for any notifications or text messages, dopamine floods our brains. Dopamine is the chemical that our brains make when we experience happiness.

Spending huge amounts of time on your phone scrolling through your favorite social media apps can take a toll on your intelligence. Social media does not stretch your brain and develop your intelligence and can play role in reducing your attention span.

Many of us use different media devices at once, which can physically shrink your brain. Try limiting your social media use by turning your phone off an hour before you go to bed, and keeping it off for the first hour or two every day.

If you are feeling up to it, try taking a temporary break from your favorite social media plaform for a month or so. For example, I deleted my Twitter account for a month after deciding I was spending way too much time scrolling through my news feed, watching videos, and commenting on anything and everything! I am so glad I made that decision!

Set Goals For Yourself

Goals are extremely important for the health of our brains! Goals take you forward in life and always give you something to work towards. Goals are the first steps to every journey we take in life.

A goal is generally defined as a desired result a person or a system envisions, plans and commits to achieve a personal or organizational desired end-point in some sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a finite time by setting deadlines.

Always keep in mind that small tasks account as goals, and why they might not seem like they are very significant, be mindful of goals in everything you do!

Goals help you remain focused, they allow you to measure your progress, they keep you locked in and undistracted, they help you defeat procrastination, and they give you added motivation.

Goals are critical to mental and brain health!

Learn Something New Every Day

Many researchers have concluded that people who learn new things every day are much less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Give your mental health and your mental fitness a challenge by stepping outside of your comfort zone.

Try something that requires an entirely different set of skills than what you are used to. For example, try learning a new dancing style, a new trade, picking up a new hobby, or speaking a new language. Your brain will benefit every time you try to learn something new.

Always try to push your mind to new limits that it has not experienced before.

Concluding Thoughts

Mental acuity is something that we should all be more mindful of. As you increase the sharpness of your mind, you will most likely experience more happiness and live a better life!

Always be mindful of the health of your brain!

Thanks for reading today, and please feel free to drop a comment below!

Natural and Simple Foot Pain Treatments

You are too worried about your hair getting out of style, your clothes are not trendy enough or your hands don’t look so soft. But when it comes to our foot we ignore it? You know, you must be kind to your feet because for the years of your existence they supported you through thick and thin. Foot pain treatment is also like styling your hair anyway. Your feet have the stressful work compared to other parts of your body. If you just ignore and abuse them, at the age of 70 they will collapse. Soon, you will feel foot arch pain.

Femdy For Foot Arch Pain

What are the possible causes of foot collapse? They include diseases, bad blood circulation and poorly cleaned toenails. Other foot problems may include serious health conditions such as diabetes or arthritis. On the positive side, there is a foot pain treatment on every foot problem. Here are some of these treatments you can do with your feet.

Simple Foot Pain Treatments You Can Do At Home

  • Ideal way to ease pain from your heel or foot, use the hot water massages. You soaked your lower legs in a container that has hot and cold water in it.
  • Common foot pain treatments require ointments with capsaicin. Also the natural ingredients such as hot pepper help you relieve the pain of your foot. This treatment is ideal for those running athletes. The treatment can be applied after you went into running, jogging or walking.
  • If you like to have natural foot pain treatments such as mustard seeds for the improvement of your blood circulation and help breakdown toxins in your muscles and joints. To do the treatment, put some seeds on the foot tub. Soak your feet for 15 minutes and then dry afterwards.

 

Foot massage

  • Another foot pain treatment is the Epsom salts. It soothes and relieves the pain you feel in your foot. To do the treatment, put 2 tablespoons of Epsom salts in a foot tub with warm water. Soak your feet for about 10 minutes.
  • Do not let your feet’s skin dehydrate because it will lead into callus and crack formation. Apply moisturizer when these things happen every day and night. Callus and cracks may lead to blisters and cuts if not prevented until it will lead to swelling. This can lead to foot pain. You also need to drink the right amount of water everyday.

There are more natural foot pain treatments you can find. You can find more reasons why you need to care your feet not only your hair or hands. Take good care of your feet starting now.

Foot Exercise for a Happy Foot

Human foot is often taken for granted and like other parts of the body, it also needs more exercise because it is the part that bears the weight of the body.  Foot exercise is likely the great way to keep your foot healthy and in great shape. Your feet also need to breathe because most of the time they are trapped in an ill-fitted shoes.  When they are trapped inside the shoes for long hours, their muscles will become stiff which results to flat feet. It is the result if your foot’s surrounding muscles weaken, the arch will collapse and the whole foot touches the ground. They usually can be triggered by ill-fitted shoes or conditions such as arthritis and sudden weight changes due to pregnancy that can change the center of gravity of the body that leads to the weakening or falling of the arches.

 Exercise Relief for Foot Arch Pain

Flat Feet Test

Easy test if you might have flat feet or fallen arches, follow these steps:

  • Wet your feet.
  • Find a flat surface where you can stand and imprint your footprints.
  • Slowly step away and look at your prints. If complete imprints of the bottom of your feet are shown, then you have flat feet.

 

Foot Exercises and Treatment

Foot exercise and stretch is very important in dealing with foot pain. Simple stretching can reduce pain and increase the blood circulation in your foot. It is also beneficial for those who are suffering from ball and heel pain. Foot arch pain is also known as arch strain; it refers to the burning sensation or a swelling at the arch of the foot.  There are factors that can cause arch pain. An injury to the foot is one factor and another one is sudden weight change. A flat foot is another factor and the pain is extreme in the morning after a prolonged rest or sleep.  These foot problems can be easily treated. One should avoid using high-heel shoes; instead choose foot wears that has lower heels, soft leather shoes and shoes that fit well in your feet.

Discover Foot Exercise for Foot Pain

 To prevent foot problems, perform some foot exercises to stretch and release muscle tensions.  Simple five-step foot exercise routine:

  • Warm-up
    • Stand, lift and lower ten toes. Repeat 12 times.
    • Lift 10 toes and spread them apart. Repeat 12 times.
    • Lift right heel off the floor. Put the ball of your feet on the floor and roll from one side to the other. Repeat 12 times.
  • Rock and roll – Keep your feet flat on the floor rock them outwards and then inwards to stand in the insides of the foot. Repeat 12 times. This movement will increase flexibility and strengthen the ankle.
  • Foot fold – Stand with both feet on the floor, lift right heel and put it down. Repeat 12 times for each foot.  Crunching around the ankle is normal. This movement stretches the arch of the foot and strengthens the midfoot.
  • Smart toes – Stand with both feet flat on the ground. Stretch toes on the ground and slowly pull them towards you. Repeat 12 times. This movement will increase the flexibility of the arch of the foot.
  • Toe challenge – Stand with both feet on the floor. Lift ten toes off the ground, tap big toes on the ground while others stay lifted and do the same with the others. This movement improves coordination, toe flexibility and muscle strength.

“Happy feet” can be achieved by performing regular foot exercises and stretching and wearing well-fitted shoes. The stronger your feet are, the faster and more convenient your legs can move.

Understanding Feet Problems and How To Avoid Them

Feet problems are not pleasant and are something that can cause pain and irritation if they are not treated properly. There are many different things from injuries to illnesses that may cause bad feet problems to occur. Sometimes the treatment to get relief from feet problems is something simple that you can do at home, while other times they may require that you go to see a doctor.

Causes of Flat Feet Problems

Trying to diagnose your feet problems yourself can be something you do at first so you can understand if it is bad feet problems or something simple. To do this you can go on the Internet and look for pictures of feet problems. These may help you to decide what is causing the problems. However, don’t delay treatment as the problem could always be something that only a medical facility can help you with.

Common Feet Problems

One common ailment that causes frequent feet problems is Athlete’s Foot. This is an itchy rash caused by fungi. This can be treated at home by going to the drug store and getting some spray or cream to treat Athlete’s Foot. Be sure to use as directed until the problem goes away.

Other feet problems that cause pain when walking could be calluses or corns or even blisters that have formed due to pressure or constriction. You can also get special cushioning pads at the drugstore or ointments to make them feel better and relieve any pain. Unless serious, these too can usually be treated at home.

Other issues of feet problems could be due to flat feet problems, which mean that you are probably suffering from foot arch pain. If this is the case, there are special shoe inserts that can help to treat this condition and they too can be purchased from a drug store. Or, if you like, you can have special made shoe orthotics that are molded into the shape of your own feet top help get rid of foot arch pain and feet problems caused by bad arches or flat feet.

Causes of Bad Feet Problems

Ways to Avoid Feet Problems

There are several things you can do to help avoid common feet problems. Some of these are to wear the correct sized shoes, and also to keep your feet clean and dry, keep your toenails trimmed, and be sure to check your feet for any wounds or other defects. Doing these things should help you to have less feet pain symptoms or issues. Hence, if you’re already experiencing feet problems, it is always good to seek professional help and avoid self-medication. Even minor feet problems should be handled with caution.

Pain In Foot: Causes and Solutions

Foot pain can be due to multiple reasons and if you have pain in foot problems, you should get an appointment with your doctor and have it checked out as soon as possible. It could be due to some recent injury or trauma from playing sports, or due to a sprained ligament, bruise or even a fracture. Pain in foot symptoms can even be due to something as simple as a person wearing the wrong sized shoes or lacing them up too tight.

Women Foot stepping

Probable Causes of Pain In Foot

If you have pain in foot when walking, then it is likely you have somehow damaged your foot or you may have bad arches or other common foot ailments. Pain in foot arch can be due to feet that have too high of arches or by too low arches, otherwise known as flat feet. To help relieve this pain in foot, you can put special orthotics inside your shoes to give more cushion and support to the arches. You can also have special made orthotics molded to your own feet to help relieve foot arch pain.

Another common cause of pain in foot is damage or injury to the Achilles tendon. This is called tendonitis and means you have somehow damaged the tendons in the foot. This could have been caused by someone stepping on your foot or by you twisting your foot or by a direct blow to your foot. However it happened, pain in foot caused by Achilles tendon injury needs to be evaluated by a doctor to see if you need a foot brace or special exercises, or even possible surgery to repair the tendon.

Causea of Pain In Foot When Walking

Injuries Can Cause Pain in Foot Symptoms

Other injury that can cause pain in foot symptoms is a stress fracture. This can be caused by overuse of the foot which is called repetitive trauma. It happens often in runners to have this sort of pain in foot because they run every day and may sometimes forget to stretch properly before they do their runs. Stretching can help to prevent stress fracture and thus prevent that kind of pain in foot symptoms like burning pain in foot or other aches and pains.

The bottom line is that if you are suffering any sort of pain in foot symptoms then you should be evaluated by your physician to see what is causing it so that the pain can be relieved through proper pain medication, orthotics, braces, or other means.